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Other publications

Bloodhound, May 2013
Justifying Blood Money. Lundin’s communications to shareholders and the market during the development of oil concession Block 5A in Sudan 1997 – 2003
To determine how it was possible for Lundin to conduct its oil exploration activities in such a risky and morally questionable environment, Bloodhound has conducted a detailed investigation of Lundin’s communications to shareholders, investors and the media during 1997-2003. This demonstrates a wide difference between Lundin’s statements on the human rights and security situation in its oil concession compared to that presented by human rights and aid groups, journalists, United Nations special rapporteurs and the Canadian government. The report finds evidence that the information presented by the company on the situation in Block 5A fell far short of that required by shareholders and investors to properly assess the financial and ethical risks associated with making an investment in an active war zone. Bloodhound therefore demands the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority Finansinpsektionen to conduct an open investigation into whether Swedish stock market disclosure rules were contravened by Lundin’s omissions and communications regarding the situation in their Block 5A licence in Sudan during 1997-2003.

International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), Vol.1-3, September 2008
Corporate Complicity & Legal Accountability vol. 1
Corporate Complicity & Legal Accountability vol. 2
Corporate Complicity & Legal Accountability vol. 3
Reports of the International Commission of Jurists Expert Legal Panel on Corporate Complicity in International Crimes.

Luke Anthony Patey, May 2007
State rules: Oil companies and armed conflict in Sudan
The strategic behaviour of international oil companies in war-torn Sudan was overwhelmingly driven by political pressure from governments. After almost 20 years of operating in Sudan, the US giant Chevron was pushed to withdraw as a result of deteriorating relations between Washington and Khartoum. The Canadian flagship oil company, Talisman, which helped kickstart oil development after Chevron’s exit also fell victim to Washington’s ire. On the other hand, the European junior oil companies, Lundin and OMV, protected by the European Union’s political standpoint of ‘constructive engagement’ in Sudan, were free to profit.

UN General Assembly, March 2006
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law

Coalition for internal justice, Februari 2006
Soil and Oil: dirty business in Sudan
Analysis of the intersection between human rights abuses and economic and commercial activity in Sudan: agriculture and oil.

Christine Batruch, 2004
Oil and conflict: Lundin Petroleum experience in Sudan
Lundin Petroleum’s explains that the company has upheld both ethical norms and its business interests in a deadly warzone.

Scott Lewis, 2004
Rejuvenating or Restraining Civil War. The role of external actors in the war economies of Sudan
A critical look at corporate interactions with the government and the local population in southern Sudan.

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), June 2004
Report of Investigation No.45: Killings and wounding of civilians along the Leer-Adok Oil Road
The CPMT investigation concluded that on April 6, 2004, elements of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) attacked a Sudan Pile Company vehicle traveling the Leer-Adok Oil Road. Interviews and photos to substantiate allegation are provided.

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), March 2004
Report of Investigation No.35: Civilian Abductions in Bentiu

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), 31 December 2002 to 30 January 2003
Final Report, Military Events in Western Upper Nile
Many thousands of civilians have been forcibly displaced from their villages by direct military attack in the areas Lara-Tam-Nhialdou-Leel and the villages south of Mankien and Mayom. Maps and investigation details provided.

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), August 2003
Report of investigation: violence against civlians along the Bentiu-Leer-Adok road

Global IDP Database, March 2003
Profile of internal displacement: Sudan
Compilation of the information available in the Global IDP Database of the Norwegian Refugee Council.

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), Februari 2003
CPMT Report: Military Events in Leer

Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), Februari 2003
CPMT Verification Update: Alleged Hostile Activity

Georgette Gagnon, January 2003
Deconstructing Engagement. Corporate Self-Regulation in Conflict Zones –Implications for Human Rights and Canadian Public Policy
This paper examines the existing governance gap in the accountability of transnational companies for violations of international human rights and humanitarian law associated with their extraterritorial operations.

Human Rights Watch, 2003
Sudan, Oil and Human Rights
The most authoritative and comprehensive report about the link between oil exploration and human rights in Unity State.

Commission on Human Rights, April 2003
Statement by Mr. Gerhart Baum Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in the Sudan

International Crisis Group, February 2003
Sudan's oil fields burn again: Brinkmanship endangers the peace process
This ICG paper describes how renewed fighting at the end of 2002/ start 2003 endangers the Sudan Peace Process and calls for strong international engagement.

Christian Aid, march 2002
Hiding between the streams. The war on civilians in the oil regions of Southern Sudan
Report of a humanitarian assessment visit to Unity State.

Médecins Sans Frontières, April 2002
Violence, Health and Access to Aid in Unity State/ Western Upper Nile, Sudan
Since the resumption of the civil war in Sudan in 1983, life in western Upper Nile has been a struggle for survival. For civilians, the war has brought little but misery, particularly since the escalation of the conflict in 1997. Repeated food shortages, displacement and epidemics have been commonplace.

Georgette Gagnon and John Ryle, October 2001
Report of an Investigation into Oil Development, Conflict and Displacement in Western Upper Nile, Sudan
A well researched expert report explains the logic and background of the intensification of armed attacks in the context of oil exploitation in Western Upper Nile during 2000 and 2001

Lundin Oil, May 2001
Lundin Oil in Sudan

Gerhart R. Baum, special Rapporteur on the situation of Human Rights in the Sudan, 57t session of te Commission on Human Rights, March 2001
Oral statement on the Human Rights in the Sudan

Christian Aid, 2001
The scorched earth. Oil and war in Sudan
This report by Christian Aid forcefully argued how the oil industry fuelled war in Sudan, starting a heated public debate in Europe.

John Harker, prepared for the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, January 2000
Human Security in Sudan: The Report of a Canadian Assessment Mission 
An Canadian Government Assessment Mission was mandated to investigate human rights violations, specifically allegations of slavery and slavery-like practices in Sudan, and report on the alleged link between oil development and human rights violations, particularly in respect of the forced removal. While the carefully documented report concluded that 'oil is exacerbating war in Sudan', the Canadian Government did not take action. 

Amnesty International, 3 May 2000
Sudan: The Human Price of Oil
This report shows the connection between the massive human rights violations by the security forces of the Government of Sudan and various government allied militias, and the oil operations by foreign companies.

Leonardo Franco, Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-sixth session, E/CN.4/2000/36, April 2000
Situation of human rights in the Sudan

Leonardo Franco, Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-fourth session, Agenda item 116 (c) A/54/467, October 1999
Special Report on the situation of human rights in the Sudan

Leonardo Franco, Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-fifth session, E/CN.4/1999/38/Add.1. May 1999
Situation of human rights in the Sudan